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Book of Technical Papers

Scientific Editor
Academician of Russian Academy of Engineering
Dr. G.E. Lozino-Lozinsky

Academician of Russian Academy of Engineering
Dr. Prof. A.G. Bratukhin

Publishing House of Moscow Aviation Institute

УДК 629.78

E d i t o r i a l B o a r d :
G. E. Lozino-Lozinsky, A. G. Bratukhin,
A. T. Tarasov, E. N. Dudar, E. G. Zalutsky

The Book of Technical Papers is published under with assistance of NPO MOLNIYA, Aerospace Section of Russian Academy of Engineering and Moscow Aviation Institute

Aerospace Transport Systems :
Book of Technical Papers under edition of G. E. Lozino-Lozinsky and A. G. Bratukhin. − Moscow: Publishing House of Moscow Aviation Institute, 1997. − 416 pp. with illustrations.

The Book of Technical Papers consists basically of the Papers of the leading experts of NPO MOLNIYA Russian Aerospace company. The most interesting scientific and technical results of work on creation of the reusable BURAN Orbiter and on development of advanced Aerospace Transportation Systems, particularly the MAKS system with the AN-225 MRIYA subsonic Carrier-Plane, are presented in the Book. The tasks of aerodynamic and gasdynamic investigations, development of new structural and heat protected materials, designing, laboratory investigation, bench-tests and flight tests, production of the Aerospace flying vehicles and their onboard systems are considered in the Papers.
The Book includes the results of the comparative analysis of performance and cost estimation for various types of the advanced Reusable Space Transportation Systems (RSTS). Strategic directions of the RSTS development are discussed.
For the experts in the field of the Aerospace industry and students of technical high schools. The Book will be interesting to a wide circle of the readers.

Without declared price

Supplement to the AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY Journal

Registered in Committee of Russian Federation on printing
No. 014671, April 9, 1996

© G.E. Lozino-Lozinsky, A.G. Bratukhin and others, 1997
© NPO MOLNIYA, Aerospace Section of Russian Academy
of Engineering, 1997

Dear reader!

The following book is the collection of technical papers, written by NPO MOLNIYA (NPO MOLNIYA Scientific & Industrial Enterprise) leading specialists. They sum up all the results of their work for the last 20 years. The book consists of two parts: the first one describes BURAN reusable orbiter’s airframe creation while the second one tells us about research and design work on Aerospace Transport Systems (ASTS) of various types and particularly about Multipurpose Aerospace System (MAKS), based on AN-225 MRIYA subsonic carrier-plane.

The papers describe Russian achievements in the fields: reusable orbiters and aerospace transport systems designing, new structural and heat protection materials development and application, technology of manufacturing process for complex flying vehicles, aerodynamic and gas-dynamic research, onboard systems and units creation and development, including onboard control complex, auxiliary power unit, hydraulic system and other units of reusable orbiter.

The first part of the book describes the most interesting results of works on BURAN orbiter airframe for the all cycle of it’s creation beginning from structure and aerodynamic configuration design up to experiments on the test beds and on the flying analogue made for horizontal flight tests.

The authors of the papers are highly qualified specialists have taking part in the works on key directions. That is why this book consists of isolated papers. Each paper is a completed work and shows author’s attitude to the discussed problems and achievements of different subdivisions work groups’ in particular and NPO MOLNIYA as a whole. Many papers of the book contain the results of the works, made together with scientific research institutes and industrial enterprises have taking part in the ENERGIYA–BURAN project: TsAGI (Central Aero Hydrodynamics Institute), LII (Flight Research Institute), VIAM, NIAT, CibNIIA, NPO ENERGIYA, NPO AP, MOKB MARS (MARS Design Bureau), TMZ (TUSHINSKY Machine Building Plant), EMZ (Experimental Machine Building Plant) and many others.

The second part presents classification of various ASTS and their space missions as the result of NPO MOLNIYA research. The results of design project works and comparative technical economic analysis for the wide range of future Reusable Space Transport Systems (RSTS) are also presented in the second part. MAKS design problems (including construction scheme substantiation, aerodynamic characteristics and flight performance analysis, gasdynamic and heat research, scheme of onboard control complex) are described more if compared with others.

This book continues and supplements recent publications devoted to Russian aerospace industry, particularly BURAN Reusable Orbiter book, edited in 1995 by Mashinostroyenie Publishing House under edition of Semenov Yu.P., Lozino-Lozinsky G.E., Lapigin V.L. and Timchenko V.A.

The authors of book hope that it will be interesting for both Russian and foreign specialists and also for a wide range of readers who want to enlarge their knowledge about aerospace technology and engineering.

Strategy and Prospect of Development of Reusable Space Transport Systems

Dr. Lozino-Lozinsky G.E. – General Designer, NPO MOLNIYA, Academician, Russian Academy of Engineering

Every day exploration of space plays more and more important part in the life of developed countries. Space activity expansion forced these countries to begin development of Reusable Space Transport Systems (RSTS) with the use of winged spaceships.

SPIRAL Aerospace System was being developed in our country in Mikoyan Design Bureau since the middle of the 60’s. The base of that system was a booster aircraft that could accelerate to the speed equivalent to 6 Mach number. The second stage of SPIRAL system was manned reusable orbiter and for its injection into an Earth satellite orbit there was used a special booster. SPIRAL orbiter manned analogue made some successful testing flights (including the flights after its airdrop from Tu-95 bomber). Later, in all the works both in Russia and other countries technical decisions of SPIRAL project were used.

Since the beginning of 70’s the USA had begun works on the Space Shuttle RSTS creation. The creation of ENERGIYA-BURAN RSTS – the analogue of this system – was begun in our country in February of 1976 after decree of Communist Party and Soviet Government. Design research work had been begun even earlier, in 1975, in NPO ENERGIYA under the leadership of academician Glushko V.P.

NPO ENERGIYA, from Ministry of General Machine Building (Ministry of Space Rocket Industry), was the head organization under the ENERGIYA–BURAN project. The Ministry of Aircraft Industry was to create airframe of reusable orbiter. In order to fulfil this problem a special organization (NPO MOLNIYA) was formed and it became the head organization on the development of BURAN orbiter airframe. NPO MOLNIYA had been formed as a result of Mr. Dement’ev P.V. (Minister of Aircraft Industry) initiative on the base of three Design Bureaus. TUSHINSKY Machine Building Plant (TMZ) was chosen as the basic plant of production. There was also Aircraft Industry Minister’s decree in accordance with which leading specialists from Mikoyan DB and RADUGA DB, who had earlier being worked under the SPIRAL project, were moved to NPO MOLNIYA in order to use scientific and technology experience for the advanced development.

The first task of NPO MOLNIYA was to pool different Designing Bureaus, having own tasks, into united team in order to use more experience of each participant. At the same time a group of organizations was being formed to do a particular type of work in this new for Russian aircraft industry field. The Head Technical Department (Mr. Bratukhin A.G) and specially formed the 12th Head Department (Mr. Korol R.S.) in Aircraft Industry Ministry administered the BURAN orbiter airframe creation process.

The scheme, showing the working process on the BURAN orbiter airframe, is presented on Figure 1. NPO MOLNIYA basic links with governmental organizations, research institutes and project co-developer organizations are also shown on the following figure.

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Figure 1. NPO MOLNIYA interaction with co-developer organizations, Designing Bureaus and Research Institutes when BURAN orbiter airframe creation

Managing measures on all project and its parts were regularly held in order to provide concerted and effective work of large co-operative. Aircraft Ministry Board and Military Industrial Committee meetings took place every quarter. Aircraft Minister’s First Deputy (first it was Mr. Silaev I.S, then Mr. Sistsov A.S and Mr. Geraschenko A.N.) held meetings in NPO MOLNIYA every week. The management in scientific and technological fields had been carried out by Council of Head Designers. The sessions of this Council were held once a month under the chairmanship of Mr. Glushko V.P., academician, General Designer on the ENERGIYA–BURAN project. One couldn’t have failed to understand all the importance of those meetings. Those meetings were of a great importance, because they had coordinated the works on both of two complicated objects: Rocket Launcher and Reusable Orbital Spaceship (Orbiter). At the finish step of the works Mr. Semenov U.P., Deputy Head Designer from NPO ENERGIA company, had successfully continued chairmanship in the Council of Head Designers. He had provided development and careful testing all the system parts on the Complex Stand in NPO ENERGIA and preparation for the first orbital flight on Baikonur Launching Site.

At the same time, when organizing questions had being solved, NPO MOLNIYA since the first days of its activity had begun a preliminary design work on the orbital spaceship. As a result of that project work a full list of main problems was formed, main co-developer companies were appointed, technical tasks and common database for them were formed. The results of the work at that step had laid down the foundations of all organizing decisions of Military Industrial Committee and appropriate decrees of Ministries, taking part in the project. I would like to mention Mr. Smirnov L.V., the head of Military Industrial Committee, who had carefully considered all details of the work, having paid a particular attention to the questions of reliability and safety. He also took measures to prevent excessive project expenses.

The decisions of Military Industrial Committee had helped to involve a set of industrial companies in the works. The most important part of the work was major construction to create new production capacity and unique test stand base. The airfield of a high class was built in Baikonur (the runway length is about 5 km). The airport in Zhukovsky (Flight Research Institute) was enlarged.

While the production capacity was being built, some research institutes and designing bureaus developed new construction and heat materials, technological processes, made new software, paper-off designing, diagnosis and nondestructive control methods. Orbiter aerodynamic layout was to test many times in wind tunnels. To provide such tunnel tests a modeling workshop was created in NPO MOLNIYA for a quick production many aerodynamic models.

From the very first days of NPO MOLNIYA activity it was clear that it would be impossible to do something without good computer base. Through out the whole BURAN project a much attention was paid to computerization of the company. The success of the project was fully depended on the orbiter’s and its systems’ successive development and testing, included computer modeling, simulation on the test stands, tests on flying models and flying laboratories, as well as on the BURAN full size flying analogue and, at last, tests on the Complex Full Scale Stand in NPO ENERGIA.

Much work was done at Experimental Machine Building Plant (EMZ) named after Myasischev V.M. There the cabin and life-support system of the orbiter were developed. The automatic landing was tested there on the flying research base of EMZ Plant. There the VM-T (ATLANT) aircraft was manufactured. This aircraft was used for air transportation of ENERGIYA rocket launcher blocks and BURAN orbiter to Baikonur launching site.

Formation group of pilots (later, space pilots) for the BURAN orbiter pilots was also a new problem. The crew of such complicated flying vehicle should have much scientific and engineering knowledge, understand how BURAN many onboard systems work. When being in the orbit, BURAN carries out flight as an artificial Earth satellite and fulfils a lot of missions. When returning to the Earth, it flies like a glider changing its velocity in a wide range and at last finishes the flight by non-powered horizontal landing on runway. The tasks of automatic landing tests with the use of BURAN analogue and pilots training became closely interwoven. The pilots fulfilled many test flights on Piloting Dynamic Stand for Training (PDST), Full Scale Stand of Equipment (FSSE), TU-154 Flying Laboratory and at last on BURAN Orbiter Analogue, equipped with turbojet engines. The head of the pilots group, distinguished test pilot Volk I.P., had being trained even during flight to MIR space station. Pilots’ crew assistance in automatic control system development was very necessary in order to provide orbiter serviceability.

The most important steps in the BURAN orbiter creation are shown on Figure 2. The first successful flight of BURAN orbiter (November 15, 1988) summed up all intense work. In spite of bad weather conditions on the day of flight (wind speed was 25 meters per second), the orbiter automatic landing accuracy was very high: miss-distance in landing point from the calculated one along runway line was 15 meters and 5 meters in lateral direction. This automatic landing had been fulfilled for the first time in the world. So, we can say that design decisions rightness, theoretical and experimental research results, engineering and methodical developments were proved.

BURAN project success depended on all the participants’ high enthusiasm. One of the reasons why the project was a successful one is that many co-developer organizations and research institutes (such as TsAGI, LII, VIAM, NIAT, NPO TECHNOMASH, TMZ, EMZ etc) took part in it. NPO MOLNIYA relationship with these organizations is described in this book.

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Figure 2. BURAN orbiter creation main stages

We can’t say that BURAN orbiter project results are a contribution only to astronautics development. Many developments among which are new materials, technological processes, nondestructive control methods and means, computer design methods, onboard and ground equipment elements are used in other fields of economy. Substantial result is also qualified personnel and formed testing base together with production capacity. All this once again proves the fact that aerospace industry developments can be used in other fields. I would like to mention one thought expressed by Mr. Ustinov D.F, a member of Politburo of Communist Party, who actually inspired the ENERGIYA–BURAN system working process. He said that the project value is not only in particular launch system creation; this project, he added, formed the base for future astronautics development in our country.

BURAN orbiter successful and tense work didn’t solve the problem of more effective and more promising reusable launch system creation. SPIRAL project results and AN-225 MRIYA appearance (the world largest cargo airplane) in fact defined reusable aerospace transport systems future. Due to the advantages of mobile air start such systems can solve a wide range of missions. That’s why the system on the base of AN-225 subsonic carrier-plane was called Multipurpose Aerospace System (MAKS). This system project was developed in NPO MOLNIYA. Taking into account that in many developed countries now different RSTS projects are being studied, there was held in NPO MOLNIYA a comparative technical and economical analysis of various advanced launch systems, that differ from each other by start type and propulsion unit, number of stages and number of reusable elements. The results say that in future the most promising are the systems that combine both aerospace and aircraft developments. During the research the following important criteria for future RSTS comparative variants valuation were defined:

  • 1. High efficiency defined not only by flight preparing time but also by launch-linkup time (for example linkup with MIR or ALPHA space stations).
  • 2. The chance to launch immediately into orbital plane of low inclination (it is a very important fact for Russia and countries with similar location).
  • 3. High ecology standards. This means ecologically safe combustion products, absence of alienated fields on the ground for dropped expendable elements and absence expendable elements that would be left in the near Earth space.
  • 4. Low cost of injection 1 kg payload into an orbit (5-10 times lower if compared with existing systems).
  • 5. Problems’ solution in a wide range of height and orbit inclination;
  • 6. Satellites and other orbital objects returning to the Earth.

The papers presented in the book prove that MAKS system satisfy all the requirements best of all. This system is the most promising one especially taking into account the fact that HERACLES carrier-plane will be built (payload will be twice as much). Despite the fact that in case of using HERACLES carrier-plane payload for the fully reusable MAKS version will be of 8 tons (for 200 km height and 51 degree inclination), MAKS version with dropping external tank will have advantages in many missions due to low portion of dry mass in the whole injected mass of orbiter.

Future development of space activity fully depends on effective, economically promising, ecologically safe RSTS creation. Now we can say for sure that the XXI century will be the century of space development for the sake of all humanity. That is why winged launch systems will be the main means to provide freight flow on the Earth-Orbit-Earth route.